The port of Valencia in Spain is the sixth largest port in Europe in terms of volume of traffic. It is also the top import, export and transshipment port in the Mediterranean. The automation of port terminal and intermodal container handling operations is very important and involves numerous different systems. They operate over three main family of systems:
- Information Technology (IT) systems
Including databases with operational and business information.
- Operational Technology (OT) systems
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), controls physical processes (e.g. vessel unloading with yard tractors and forklifts with auxiliary equipment).
- Port Community System (PCS)
Supports port services such as management of docking and shipping of vessels.
- Against IT component
Complex threat scenarios with the purpose of disrupting port operations or facilitating illegal activities (smuggling materials, illegal immigrants, destroy major/critical infrastructure, etc.) aimed at obtaining financial, political/military or even ideological gain and benefits. They can also use sequenced attacks to infiltrate further into the cyber infrastructure (e.g. infiltrate port Wi-Fi, listen/modify/inject falsified data into network).
- Against OT networks
Targeting either corporate network or SCADA to gain unauthorised access to systems.
- Against PCS networks
Take advantage of software bugs/flaws if they exist thus interfering with the authorisation process, allowing a vessel carrying illegal or hazardous materials to enter, dock or even bypass port inspection.